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Active Management of Third Stage of Labor & Birth

managing-the-3rd-stage-of-labor-drrhodora-cruzbulacan-ob-g-14-728

Jacqueline Levine, Childbirth Educator/Lactation Consultant, has taken a hard look at the Third Stage of Labor and Birth.
If this stage is “managed” or not may have an impact on your breastfeeding.
Take a look at what this long time professional has to say…..

Prophylactic pit is just  part of that package of “Active Management of Thirds  Stage of Labor” (AMTSL) and there’s  a really great analysis of that concept  and its consequences  in “Optimal Care in Childbirth” Romano and Goer’s  great book.  They contend, and studies agree,  that the medical model of birth…induction and pit to augment labor and other protocols…are modifiable causes of PPH (Post Partum Hemorrhage),  and all woman do not just bleed to death after birthing their babies.   

We know that docs think that medical intervention is always the answer to a problem… never the cause.   I quote from the Goer/Romano book “…research fails to provide ANY evidence that universal application of AMTSL   results in clinically important improvements in maternal outcomes in developed countries, while documenting that it introduces harms”  (p379).     

 In 2010, Cochrane reviewers raised many issues about the trade-offs between the benefits and harms of managing third stage, including worries about prophylactic pit for all women regardless of their risk profile. The key phrase for looking at PPH is, I think, “developed” countries.   99% of deaths due to hemorrhage are in undeveloped and developing countries (says the WHO) , and pit has had  great success in the prevention and treatment of PPH in low-resource countries.

 But here in the US and  in other  high-resource settings, AMTSL “ conferred no benefit other than a small absolute reduction in transfusion rates, but findings show that transfusion rates are not an objective measure”, (Goer/Romano p379), because of the biases found in decisions about  the administration of transfusion and the lack of standardization as to when to treat.   Here, where we have the best medical resources (badly used and badly distributed, no doubt), a pit shot for every woman is overkill, unnecessary for the healthy mother, takes the place of her own highest-ever levels of natural oxytocin, upsets the beneficent cocktail of post birth hormones  the high levels  that nature provides for the most successful and joyous first minutes and hours with her newborn.  

During a c-section,  the mother may lose as much as 1000ml of blood, and that’s not enough to make docs call for a transfusion, but the standard for vaginal birth is only 500ml, and one wonders how they can tell how much blood loss there really is, when much of what a woman loses may be absorbed in the chux pads under and around her.

The Cochrane  says” Women should be given information on the benefits and harms of both methods to support informed choice. Given the concerns about early cord clamping and the potential adverse effects of some uterotonics, it is critical now to look at the individual components of third-stage management.”

Active versus expectant management for women in the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; 11:CD007412 (ISSN: 1469-493X) Begley CM ; Gyte GM ; Devane D ; McGuire W ; Weeks A
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, 24, D’Olier Street, Dublin, Ireland, Dublin 2.

 

Tools for Birth

When you are ready to give birth, you will have an arsenal full of tools you wish to use during this most important and exciting experience.  <<   

You will have all of your recent education, your birth wishes, your doula, your midwife. You will <have your birth ball, your birth pool, your willingness to do what you need to do.

Your desired ambiance will be created through lighting, music and aromatherapy. <And most important…you will have your open mind.

If things might not go as you originally hoped they would…you will have another set of tools that some call interventions. And you will know in your heart that there is a time and place for every intervention that man has created. <And so your tools will have grown to include pitocin, pain medication, epidural, and if need be, a cesarean.

And in the end, you will have your new baby in your arms. <Your dream of many days and weeks will be complete.< Perhaps not exactly as you had hoped and planned. And for that you may need to grieve. And that grieving will be good.

But you will forever know that you had prepared, and used,  your tools. And you had prepared, and used, your open mind. <And then, and for always, you will have your baby; your family.

 

What Impact Can IV Fluids Have on Mother, Baby and Breastfeeding?

 A Quick Look.

images (4)Written by guest author, Jacqueline Levine

Having IV fluids is a medical procedure. It’s meant to restore normal body fluid balance when there’s blood loss or dehydration, but the Listening to Mother’s Survey1 reports that 83% of women have IV in labor. Having a routine IV , as so many do, isn’t risk-free.2 An excess of IV fluid can dilute red blood cells and other components of the blood like clotting factors, so that less oxygen gets to the uterus and less to the fetus, increasing the possibility of post partum anemia or hemorrhage3,4.
Too much fluid can overcome normal pressure in blood vessels, and fluid goes where it shouldn’t. The mother’s and/or baby’s lungs can become “wet”5. Large amounts of fluid given quickly (a bolus) can interfere with the activity of the uterus.6 The type of IV fluids given can have unhappy effects as well, such as hyponatremia which can cause seizures, and symptomatic hypoglycemia in the baby7,8,9. Plastic IV lines may “off-gas” phthalates and other chemicals that are harmful. This list is brief. There are lots of studies that show harms from routine use of IV. Even the safety of “normal saline” has come under scrutiny.10 And the effect of IV administration lasts well into the days after the mother is disconnected from her hanging bag of fluids.
Fluid has weight, of course; haven’t you heard that helpful little reminder, “a pint’s a pound the world around”? If a laboring mother gets bag after bag of IV fluids, odds are that her baby will be born with an inflated birth weight. Breastfeeding success is often measured by how quickly the baby regains its birth weight after the normal weight loss in the first week or so. What exactly might that baby’s normal birth weight have been? What does it mean to the motherbaby pair when of them both are full of extra fluids? Water moves everywhere in the mother’s body and aside from ankles and wrists and fingers and toes that can be swollen like sausages, breasts and nipples hold water as well. A swollen breast with taut skin makes latching difficult. This scenario is often the beginning of early nursing troubles10: the transition from colostrum to mature milk may be delayed in a water-swollen breast, and a newborn may not able to achieve a deep latch so he can’t get sufficient food and cannot stimulate the breast well. Supplementation comes next. We know it and the studies show it. There are remedies to those situations…good support for mother and baby… but best-evidence, optimal maternity care is the answer.
Supplementation frequently comes next. We know it and the studies show it. There surely are remedies to the problem of swollen breasts, like Reverse Pressure Softening, and methods to build up milk supply, and ways to support better positioning for a baby who is having latch difficulties..
But the overarching answer is for mothers to be aware of best-evidence, optimal maternity care, and to understand their rights as patients to refuse routine interventions. By avoiding IV fluids except for compelling medical reasons, mothers will be able to avoid the negative consequences of fluid overload to their babies and themselves, and give themselves a chance at better breastfeeding beginnings.

Jacqueline (Jackie) Levine, LCCE, FACCE, CD(DONA), CLC is committed to providing a continuum of care for underserved women at PlannedJackie-Levine Parenthood, on Long Island, NY, where she has provided free Lamaze education, birth and breastfeeding support to all the women in her classes for the last 9 years. She is a guest lecturer on Childbirth in the US at CW Post, has worked for CIMS, contributed to the Lamaze e-newsletter Building Confidence Week-by-Week , all after her 30-year career as a designer in the garment center. Jackie is a recipient of the Lamaze Community Outreach Award, mother of three and Grandmother of five.” Science & Sensibility

 
References:
1-DeClerq E, Sakala C, Corry MP, et al. Listening to Mothers ll: Report of the Second National US Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. New York: Childbirth Connection
2-Wasserfstrum N. Issues in fluid management during labor; general considerations. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1992;35(3):505-13
3-Carvalho JC, Mathias RS, Intravenous Hydration in obstetrics. Intl Anesthesiol Clin 1994:32(2):103-15
4- Carvalho JC, Mathias RS,Senra WG et al. Hemoglobin concentration variation and blood volume expansion during epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Reg Anesth1991;16(1S):73
5-Gonik B., Cotton DB.,Peripartum colloid osmotic changes; influence of intravenous hydration. American Journal Obstet Gynecol1984;150(1):99-100
6-Cheek, T.G., Samuels, P.,Miller, F., Tobin, M., Gutshe, B.B. Iv load decreases uterine activity in active labor. Journal of Anaesthesia 1996;77:632-635
7-Stratton JF, Stronge J, Boylan PC. Hyponatremia and non-electrolyte solutions in laboring primigravida. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995;59(2):149-151
8-west CR, Harding JE. Maternal water intoxication as a cause of neonatal seizures. J Pediatr Child Health 2004;40(12):709-10
9-Nordstrom L, Arulkumaran S, et al. Continuous maternal glucose infusion during labor; effects on maternal and fetal glucose and lactate levels. Am J Perina. Am J Perinatol;1995;12(5);357-62
10-http://www.modernmedicine.com/modernmedicine/Modern+Medicine+Now/Normal-saline-is-not-normal-may-be-harmful/ArticleNewsFeed/Article/detail/776186?ref=25
11-Chantry CJ, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Peerson JM et al. Excess Weight Loss in First-Born Breastfed Newborns Relates to Maternal Intrapartum Fluid Balance. Pediatrics 2010

No…thank you!

No Thank you

Undisturbed Birth

“One cannot actively help a woman give birth. The goal is to avoid disturbing her unnecessarily.”

– Michel Odent

What Is Really Being Said When Talking With Your Care Provider?

You know the old saying……

Why do you suppose you have two ears and but one mouth?

er

Using your ears really applies to when you are speaking with your care provider. First, use your mouth to ask your question. But then use your ears to hear the answer. Listen to the words s/he uses. And then, use your mouth again to restate what was just said. Get any clarification you may need. This is also true with all medical personnel, such as hospital/birth center staff.

For example, if you say you want to labor in water, your care provider may say “Sure you can labor in water, you can use the tub.” What is really being said? You can labor in a birth tub or birth pool? Or is s/he saying you can labor in a bathtub while you are still at home? You might want to clarify the definition of laboring in water and tub.

Another example, you ask if the medication is going to hurt your baby. The health professional responds “No, we never would give anything to you that would harm your baby.” What is really bring said? That the medication will have no impact, at all, on your baby ? Or that the medication will not harm/hurt your baby,now or later. Perhaps what you really want to know is if the medication will effect, have any impact, on your baby, now or later.

See what I mean? Be sure of what you are hearing. If there is any doubt in your mind, at all, ask again for further clarification. It often helps to restate what you have heard and ask if that is what is meant. If your care provider becomes impatient with you, or even avoids direct answers…..do you want to reconsider your choice of care providers?

Use your two ears to really hear the words. Use your mouth to ask questions and to clarify.

From the Mouth of a Doctor!

True story….yesterday a doctor, as in MD, said she loved delivering with doulas.


“It makes for such a more peaceful birth.”


She then says to the couple that a doula saves lots of money.

She said an anesthesiologist charges $1600 to perform an epidural…and that does not even include the medicine & equipment.


Thank you Ms Doctor!!!!

Know Your Rights

I recently posted a very good article to my FaceBook page about Informed Consent.

Check it out:  What Every Pregnant Woman Needs to Know About Her Right to Make Choices | Brio Birth

It reminded me of “The Rights of Childbearing Women”, written by Childbirth Connection, which I share with you here.

The Rights of Childbearing Women

* At this time in the United States, childbearing women are legally entitled to those rights.
** The legal system would probably uphold those rights.
1. Every woman has the right to health care before, during and after pregnancy and childbirth.
2. Every woman and infant has the right to receive care that is consistent with current scientific evidence about benefits and risks.* Practices that have been found to be safe and beneficial should be used when indicated. Harmful, ineffective or unnecessary practices should be avoided. Unproven interventions should be used only in the context of research to evaluate their effects.
3.Every woman has the right to choose a midwife or a physician as her maternity care provider. Both caregivers skilled in normal childbearing and caregivers skilled in complications are needed to ensure quality care for all.
4. Every woman has the right to choose her birth setting from the full range of safe options available in her community, on the basis of complete, objective information about benefits, risks and costs of these options.*
5. Every woman has the right to receive all or most of her maternity care from a single caregiver or a small group of caregivers, with whom she can establish a relationship. Every woman has the right to leave her maternity caregiver and select another if she becomes dissatisfied with her care.* (Only second sentence is a legal right.)
6.Every woman has the right to information about the professional identity and qualifications of those involved with her care, and to know when those involved are trainees.*
7.  Every woman has the right to communicate with caregivers and receive all care in privacy, which may involve excluding nonessential personnel. She also has the right to have all personal information treated according to standards of confidentiality.*
8. Every woman has the right to receive maternity care that identifies and addresses social and behavioral factors that affect her health and that of her baby.** She should receive information to help her take the best care of herself and her baby and have access to social services and behavioral change programs that could contribute to their health.
9.  Every woman has the right to full and clear information about benefits, risks and costs of the procedures, drugs, tests and treatments offered to her, and of all other reasonable options, including no intervention.* She should receive this information about all interventions that are likely to be offered during labor and birth well before the onset of labor.
10.  Every woman has the right to accept or refuse procedures, drugs, tests and treatments, and to have her choices honored. She has the right to change her mind.* (Please note that this established legal right has been challenged in a number of recent cases.)


11.  Every woman has the right to be informed if her caregivers wish to enroll her or her infant in a research study. She should receive full information about all known and possible benefits and risks of participation; and she has the right to decide whether to participate, free from coercion and without negative consequences.*
12. Every woman has the right to unrestricted access to all available records about her pregnancy, labor, birth, postpartum care and infant; to obtain a full copy of these records; and to receive help in understanding them, if necessary.*
13. Every woman has the right to receive maternity care that is appropriate to her cultural and religious background, and to receive information in a language in which she can communicate.*
14. Every woman has the right to have family members and friends of her choice present during all aspects of her maternity care.**
15. Every woman has the right to receive continuous social, emotional and physical support during labor and birth from a caregiver who has been trained in labor support.**
16. Every woman has the right to receive full advance information about risks and benefits of all reasonably available methods for relieving pain during labor and birth, including methods that do not require the use of drugs. She has the right to choose which methods will be used and to change her mind at any time.*
17.  Every woman has the right to freedom of movement during labor, unencumbered by tubes, wires or other apparatus. She also has the right to give birth in the position of her choice.*
18. Every woman has the right to virtually uninterrupted contact with her newborn from the moment of birth, as long as she and her baby are healthy and do not need care that requires separation.**
19.  Every woman has the right to receive complete information about the benefits of breastfeeding well in advance of labor, to refuse supplemental bottles and other actions that interfere with breastfeeding, and to have access to skilled lactation support for as long as she chooses to breastfeed.**
20. Every woman has the right to decide collaboratively with caregivers when she and her baby will leave the birth site for home, based on their conditions and circumstances.**

1999, 2006 Childbirth Connection

 

KNOW YOUR RIGHTS

I just read a very disturbing birth story on FaceBook. It was about how a woman was treated at the hospital.

Unfortunately, this can happen…IF YOU ALLOW IT TO HAPPEN!

Know what your rights are!!

The Rights of Childbearing Women

Taken from ChildbirthConnection.org/rights

* At this time in the United States, childbearing women are legally entitled to those rights.
** The legal system would probably uphold those rights.

1. Every woman has the right to health care before, during and after pregnancy and childbirth.
2. Every woman and infant has the right to receive care that is consistent with current scientific evidence about benefits and risks.* Practices that have been found to be safe and beneficial should be used when indicated. Harmful, ineffective or unnecessary practices should be avoided. Unproven interventions should be used only in the context of research to evaluate their effects.
3. Every woman has the right to choose a midwife or a physician as her maternity care provider. Both caregivers skilled in normal childbearing and caregivers skilled in complications are needed to ensure quality care for all.
4. Every woman has the right to choose her birth setting from the full range of safe options available in her community, on the basis of complete, objective information about benefits, risks and costs of these options.*
5. Every woman has the right to receive all or most of her maternity care from a single caregiver or a small group of caregivers, with whom she can establish a relationship. Every woman has the right to leave her maternity caregiver and select another if she becomes dissatisfied with her care.* (Only second sentence is a legal right.)
6. Every woman has the right to information about the professional identity and qualifications of those involved with her care, and to know when those involved are trainees.*
7. Every woman has the right to communicate with caregivers and receive all care in privacy, which may involve excluding nonessential personnel. She also has the right to have all personal information treated according to standards of confidentiality.*
8.Every woman has the right to receive maternity care that identifies and addresses social and behavioral factors that affect her health and that of her baby.** She should receive information to help her take the best care of herself and her baby and have access to social services and behavioral change programs that could contribute to their health.
9. Every woman has the right to full and clear information about benefits, risks and costs of the procedures, drugs, tests and treatments offered to her, and of all other reasonable options, including no intervention.* She should receive this information about all interventions that are likely to be offered during labor and birth well before the onset of labor.
10. Every woman has the right to accept or refuse procedures, drugs, tests and treatments, and to have her choices honored. She has the right to change her mind.* (Please note that this established legal right has been challenged in a number of recent cases.)
11. Every woman has the right to be informed if her caregivers wish to enroll her or her infant in a research study. She should receive full information about all known and possible benefits and risks of participation; and she has the right to decide whether to participate, free from coercion and without negative consequences.*
12. Every woman has the right to unrestricted access to all available records about her pregnancy, labor, birth, postpartum care and infant; to obtain a full copy of these records; and to receive help in understanding them, if necessary.*
13. Every woman has the right to receive maternity care that is appropriate to her cultural and religious background, and to receive information in a language in which she can communicate.*
14.Every woman has the right to have family members and friends of her choice present during all aspects of her maternity care.**
15.Every woman has the right to receive continuous social, emotional and physical support during labor and birth from a caregiver who has been trained in labor support.**
16.Every woman has the right to receive full advance information about risks and benefits of all reasonably available methods for relieving pain during labor and birth, including methods that do not require the use of drugs. She has the right to choose which methods will be used and to change her mind at any time.*
17.Every woman has the right to freedom of movement during labor, unencumbered by tubes, wires or other apparatus. She also has the right to give birth in the position of her choice.*
18. Every woman has the right to virtually uninterrupted contact with her newborn from the moment of birth, as long as she and her baby are healthy and do not need care that requires separation.**
19. Every woman has the right to receive complete information about the benefits of breastfeeding well in advance of labor, to refuse supplemental bottles and other actions that interfere with breastfeeding, and to have access to skilled lactation support for as long as she chooses to breastfeed.**
20. Every woman has the right to decide collaboratively with caregivers when she and her baby will leave the birth site for home, based on their conditions and circumstances.**

Please see original article for all credits and references: ChildbirthConnection.org/rights

 

 

 

ARE YOU HAVING A HOLIDAY BABY?

 

My friends at “Preparing For Birth” posted the following…

“Induction is serious business — the holiday season is upon us — be wary of convenience labor induction to avoid a holiday birth day — knowing your bishop score can help you make this decision.”

This really got me thinking as I have several holiday babies scheduled in the next few weeks.

I started really looking at the Bishop Score to see how all of my mommies are faring at this point. And then I began to consider how care providers look at this and make their determinations.

If in the next few weeks, as these women have their next round of appointments, and their care providers start talking induction, what is my appropriate behavior as a certified DONA doula? I know it is not appropriate for me to contradict the medical professional or give any kind of advice at all. After all…I am not medically trained.

But it is within the scope of my profession to supply information so that informed decisions may be made by these future mommies.

And so…..I choose to post the Bishop Score.

Parameter/Score      0                       1                             2                       3

Position                Posterior      Intermediate       Anterior

 

Consistency         Firm              Intermediate       Soft

 

Effacement           0-30%           31-50%                   51-80%           >80%

 

Dilation                 0 cm                 1-2 cm                   3-4 cm             >5 cm

 

Fetal Station         -3                      -2                            -1,0                   +1, +2

Here’s how it works… Next time you have a vaginal examine  (at 40 weeks plus unless you really want to consider induction before full term)  you might ask your provider the following: uterine position, cervical consistency, cervical effacement, dilation, and the station of your baby.                                            You can find definitions of these terms in a good reference book such as Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Newborn by Simkin et al., or TheThinking Woman’s Guide to a Better Birth by Henci Goer.

“A score of 5 or less suggests that labour is unlikely to start without induction.  A score of 9 or more indicates that labour will most likely commence spontaneously.                                                                                                                                          A low Bishop’s score often indicates that induction is unlikely to be successful. Some sources indicate that only a score of 8 or greater is reliably predictive of a successful induction.”                                                                                                                   From Wikipedia

Wait a minute……I ask you to consider these two paragraphs  again. Hmmm…

Modified Bishop score

“According to the Modified Bishop’s pre-induction cervical scoring system, effacement has been replaced by cervical length in cm, with scores as follows- 0>3 cm, 1>2 cm, 2>1 cm, 3>0 cm.”

“Another modification for the Bishop’s score is the modifiers. Points are added or subtracted according to special circumstances as follows:

One point is added for:

1. Existence of pre-eclampsia

2. Every previous vaginal delivery

One point is subtracted for:

1. Postdate pregnancy

2. Nulliparity (no previous vaginal deliveries)

3. PPROM; preterm premature (prelabor) rupture of membranes

From Wikipedia

Just some things to consider.

As I always say……your body, your baby, your birth!

And Happy Holidays!!!